Low Back Pain

(Includes evidence for non-pregnant adults; see “pregnancy,” “older adults” and “children” for evidence on LBP among special populations)

Updated: July 2021

Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG)

  • A 2021 survey of 545 adult LBP patients evaluated the implementation of the 2017 American College of Physicians CPG. Patients were asked about their MD’s recommendations for drug and nondrug therapies for their LBP. 81% reported receiving recommendations for both drug and nondrug therapies; 37% for massage, acupuncture or spinal manipulation (18% spinal manipulation); and 66% for prescription medication. Patient compliance with MD recommendations was 68%-94% depending on the therapy. Despite the ACP guideline, further research and education of primary care physicians is needed to foster multimodal care. FREE FULL TEXT

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A literature synthesis of Chiropractic Care for Low Back Pain — an academically rigorous analysis of all the available scientific literature using internationally accepted tools to rate each article according to specific criteria indicating only what we can conclude with supportable, scientific evidence.