Lower Extremity

November 2019


  • A 2018 consensus statement recommended exercise (especially combining hip and knee), combined interventions and foot orthoses. Patellofemoral, knee or lumbar mobilizations in isolation, or electrophysical agents, were not recommended. There is uncertainty regarding patellar taping/bracing, acupuncture/dry needling, manual soft tissue techniques, and gait retraining.

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A literature synthesis of Lower Extremity conditions — an academically rigorous analysis of all the available scientific literature using internationally accepted tools to rate each article according to specific criteria indicating only what we can conclude with supportable, scientific evidence.